- Intact guinea that is female are “sows” and intact males are “boars”.
- Mature boars have actually distinct scrotal pouches and testes that are large.
- Male guinea pigs have actually a few accessory intercourse glands, including big, paired seminal vesicles or vesicular glands, that can easily be recognised incorrectly as uterine horns.
- Puberty does occur at around 2 months in females and between 2-3 months in men.
- The pubic symphysis separates within the last few times of maternity.
- Separation associated with the pubic symphysis may be insufficient in sows bred after 7-8 months of age and dystocia may result in him or her. Other possible factors behind dystocia consist of obesity and large fetal size.
- Sows often give birth to 2-4 large, precocial pups. Other rodent types generally speaking have actually big litters.
- Pregnancy toxemia is a cause that is important of mortality in guinea pigs. This disorder is frequently noticed in primiparous, overweight sows in belated gestation. The prognosis is oftentimes guarded. Minmise the chance of maternity toxemia by motivating workout, preventing obesity, and minimizing stress in the sow that is pregnant.
- Unilateral or bilateral ovarian cysts are quite typical, especially in older sows.
- Ovariohysterectomy or ovariectomy is advised to avoid the introduction of ovarian cysts along with other problems that are reproductive non-breeding friend sows.
Guinea pigs are helpful in reproductive studies simply because they share numerous reproductive characteristics with people (Fig 1). 26 Like people, guinea pigs have a very hemochorial placenta, by which maternal bloodstream is available in direct connection with the fetal chorion, in addition to comparable trophoblast intrusion habits and uterine vasculature that is comparable. 20 , 23 , 26 The guinea pig’s gestation duration may also be split into trimesters, analogous towards the condition that is human. 26 needless to say, some popular features of guinea pig reproductive anatomy and physiology are distributed to other people in purchase Rodentia, along with other features are unique for this species that is special. This short article ratings physiology and physiology associated with guinea pig reproductive tract and summarizes some clinically significant medical issues.
Figure 1.Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are helpful in lots of studies that are reproductive.
Intact male guinea pigs, or “boars”, enter puberty between 70-90 days, nevertheless men commence to show intimate behavior, such as for example mounting, at four weeks of age. 9 , 17 , 23 At 2 months, boars start to ejaculate while mounting. 23 Expression of sexual behavior and real development is notably suppressed in the event that boar is housed using its mom and/or siblings. 11
Boars are generally bigger than females, with both sexes having a single set of inguinal mammae. 5 Mature boars have big, paired testes, that are found on either part associated with the perineum in distinct, superficial scrotal sacs (Fig 2). 5 , 9 , 23 The testicles are frequently completely descended in to the scrotum by 81 times. 2 In the event that testes never have descended by 4 months of age, the guinea pig should be thought about cryptorchid. 9 The canals that are inguinal available for a lifetime. 9 , 19 to avoid herniation post-castration, numerous clinicians utilize a shut strategy or perhaps a modified available strategy, where in actuality the tunica is roofed when you look at the suture which is used to connect from the spermatic cable and vessels. 32
Figure image that is 2.Gross of testicle (arrow) in an adult boar (Cavia porcellus). The epididymis lies across the surface that is dorsolateral of testis. The end associated with the epididymis offers rise into the ductus deferens. Credit: Drury Reavill, DVM, DABVP (Avian Training), DACVP. Click image to expand.
Clinical Suggestion: Although big, paired testes are clear in mature boars, sex identification could be challenging in young pups. In the event that testicles aren’t obvious, sexing can be facilitated by placing mild stress at the bottom of this prepuce to partially extrude your penis. 23
The S-shaped penis comprises of the human anatomy and glans. Guinea pigs have a penis that is os which will be discovered inside the dorsal area for the whole duration of the glans. 9 , 19 Like many hystricomorph rodents, your penis even offers minute, saw-toothed white spurs arranged dorsolaterally in 2 synchronous lines through the urethral orifice to your glans. Additionally there is a sac that is intromittent the ventral area associated with glans penis. 9 During erection, the sac everts and two styles that are horny. 5 , 9 , 23 the big event among these 3-5 mm long projections is unknown. 9
Male reproductive glands include the seminal vesicles (vesicular glands), coagulating glands, bulbourethral glands, while the prostate (Fig 3). 5 , 27 A rudimentary gland that is preputial be contained in the boar. 9